# Discovery Model Example¶

Here we will attempt to learn the parameters provided in this example (i.e. .0001 and 5.0) from the data provided. We consider that data, in this case, to be “experimental” data, however we do know it to be high-fidelity data from a simulation of the AC PDE system.

First, we present the whole script to train a discovery model, then we will break it apart and examine the major chunks.

## Full Example¶

# Put params into a list
params = [tf.Variable(0.0, dtype=tf.float32), tf.Variable(0.0, dtype=tf.float32)]

# Define f_model, note the vars argument. Inputs must follow this order!
def f_model(u_model, var, x, t):
u = u_model(tf.concat([x, t], 1))
c1 = var  # tunable param 1
c2 = var  # tunable param 2
f_u = u_t - c1 * u_xx + c2 * u * u * u - c2 * u
return f_u

# Import data, same data as Raissi et al

t = data['tt'].flatten()[:, None]
x = data['x'].flatten()[:, None]
Exact = data['uu']
Exact_u = np.real(Exact)

# generate all combinations of x and t
X, T = np.meshgrid(x, t)

X_star = np.hstack((X.flatten()[:, None], T.flatten()[:, None]))
u_star = Exact_u.T.flatten()[:, None]

x = X_star[:, 0:1]
t = X_star[:, 1:2]

print(np.shape(x))
# append to a list for input to model.fit
X = [x, t]

# define MLP depth and layer width
layer_sizes = [2, 128, 128, 128, 128, 1]

# initialize, compile, train model
model = DiscoveryModel()
model.compile(layer_sizes, f_model, X, u_star, params)

# train loop
model.fit(tf_iter=10000)


Let’s break this apart and look at its pieces.

### Defining parameters and f_model for estimation¶

First we define the tf.Variable objects for the parameters and the new f_model. Note that the structure and syntax is largely the same as the CollocationSolverND example, with a few notable exceptions.

# Put params into a list
params = [tf.Variable(0.0, dtype=tf.float32), tf.Variable(0.0, dtype=tf.float32)]

# Define f_model, note the vars argument. Inputs must follow this order!
def f_model(u_model, var, x, t):
u = u_model(tf.concat([x, t], 1))
c1 = var  # tunable param 1
c2 = var  # tunable param 2
f_u = u_t - c1 * u_xx + c2 * u * u * u - c2 * u
return f_u


Above, we can see that the parameters must be tf.Variables, initialized as above, with a tf.float32 data type. You must initialize as many of these as there are parameters to estimate. Those variables must then be added to a list for training at a later step. Here we initialize the parameters to 0.0 to start. As a heuristic, this works well since the $$u$$ network also needs to get somewhat close to a 0.0 residual solution before the trianing of the parameters can really start to take root.

Concurrently, we generate the new f_model. As discussed earlier, the new f_model contains an additional input from its CollocationSolverND cousin - the var input. This input is where the list of tf.Variables goes. Inside the f_model definition, that list is then partitioned out piecewise into the PDE. This allows the tensorflow tracing to reach into the f_model function and backpropagate against those values, resulting in training of the parameters as well as the $$u$$ network itself.

### Importing data and generating input¶

# Import data, same data as Raissi et al

t = data['tt'].flatten()[:, None]
x = data['x'].flatten()[:, None]
Exact = data['uu']
Exact_u = np.real(Exact)

# generate all combinations of x and t
X, T = np.meshgrid(x, t)

X_star = np.hstack((X.flatten()[:, None], T.flatten()[:, None]))
u_star = Exact_u.T.flatten()[:, None]

x = X_star[:, 0:1]
t = X_star[:, 1:2]

# append to a list for input to model.fit
X = [x, t]


In this case, the input x and t sequences were held in the file. These took a similar form to np.linspace objects, i.e. were vectors of even spacing across the x and t dimensions, independently. Therefore, we needed to generate all possible combinations of x and t to use these. If you are in need of a multidimensional meshgrid generator (past 2D) that returns a list of all possible combinations of np.linepace type arrays, check out this github gist to get the input in the format tensordiffeq requires. This multimesh generation is included in tdq base and is available by combining the function multimesh with flatten_and_stack, both in tensordiffeq.utils. Note that you need an X, u_sol pair for each of your data points. So, if you have a 1D (with time) problem, then you need an input pair that of the form [x,t] and a target u_sol value. Essentially, we are performing supervised learning of the parameters, therefore we need some target value for each input coordinate in the domain where we have data available.

### Defining the network and training¶

Next we define the layer_size, similar to the CollocationSolverND example

# define MLP depth and layer width
layer_sizes = [2, 128, 128, 128, 128, 1]


Finally, we can compile with all the parameters we defined above and begin training!

# initialize, compile, train model
model = DiscoveryModel()
model.compile(layer_sizes, f_model, X, u_star, params)

# train loop
model.fit(tf_iter=10000)